In addition to the settlement of Germany and Poland, the Potsdam negotiators agreed to the creation of a Council of Foreign Ministers to develop peace agreements with Germany`s former allies on behalf of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and China. Conference participants also agreed to revise the 1936 Montreux Convention, which gave Turkey exclusive control of the Strait of Turkey. In addition, the United States, Britain and China issued the “Potsdam Declaration,” which threatened Japan with “immediate and total destruction” if it did not surrender immediately (the Soviet Union did not sign the declaration because it had yet to declared war on Japan). The Potsdam Conference, held from 17 July to 2 August 1945 near Berlin, was the last of the three major meetings of the Second World War. The conference brought together the President of the Soviet Union, the new US President Harry S. Truman and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (replaced on 28 July by his successor Clement Attlee). On 26 July, the Heads of State and Government issued a statement calling for Japan`s “unconditional surrender” and hiding the fact that they had privately agreed to let Japan retain its emperor. For the rest, the conference revolved around post-war Europe. A Council of Foreign Ministers, composed of the Big Three, China and France, was agreed. The german military administration was set up with a central allied supervisory board (the requirement that access decisions be unanimous would prove crippling at a later date). The heads of state and government have reached various agreements on the German economy, with a focus on the development of agriculture and non-military industry. The institutions that controlled the Nazi economy had to be decentralized, but all of Germany would be treated as a single economic entity. War criminals would be brought to justice.
Stalin`s request to define the German-Polish border was pushed back to the peace treaty, but the conference accepted his transfer from the country east of the Oder and the Neisse from Germany to Poland. With regard to repairs, a compromise was drawn up on the basis of an exchange of capital equipment from the western zone for eastern raw materials. It resolved a dispute, but set a precedent for the management of the German economy by zone and not exhaustive, as the Western powers hoped.